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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:26
26-06-2018, 18:26

Finger millet is a nutritional powerhouse: A review of the nutrients it offers

Категория: Food

Finger millet is a nutritional powerhouse: A review of the nutrients it offers

Whenever the word “cereals” is mentioned, we tend to think of the basics: oats, barley, and rye. However, one type of cereal that isn’t thought of as often is millet, partly because it isn’t widely grown in the U.S. – millet is consumed more in the semi-arid continents of Asia and Africa.

While millet may not be as popular as other types of cereals, researchers from the G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology have argued that it deserves more recognition because it is a nutritional powerhouse.

The investigative team focused on finger millet for their study. Of the different varieties of millet, they ranked it fourth in terms of importance. However, finger millet is unique compared to other millets, thanks to its five-layered seed coat or testa. This special coat is believed to be the reason why finger millet’s total dietary fiber content (19.1/100 g) is greater than that of quinoa (14.2/100 g) and wheat (12.1/100 g), and nearly on par with amaranth (20.6/100 g). In fact, the researchers estimated that finger millet is composed of 18 percent dietary fiber.

On top of dietary fiber, finger millet testa also has an impressive plethora of macronutrients and micronutrients. As per the study, every 100 g of finger millet is loaded with:

Calcium (344 mg)
Copper (0.47 mg)
Iron (3.9 mg)
Magnesium (137 mg)
Manganese (5.49 mg)
Phosphorus (283 mg)
Potassium (408 mg)
Vitamin B1 or Thiamine (0.42 mg)
Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin (0.19 mg)
Vitamin B3 or Niacin (1.1 mg)
Zinc (2.3 mg)
And compared to other minor millets, finger millet is the one you can count on for essential and conditionally essential amino acids. A 100 g serving of finger millet will yield:

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Arginine (0.300 g)
Cystine (0.140 g)
Histidine (0.130 g)
Isoleucine (0.400 g)
Leucine (0.690 g)
Lysine (0.220 g)
Methionine (0.210 g)
Phenylalanine (0.310 g)
Threonine (0.240 g)
Tryptophan (0.100 g)
Tyrosine (0.220 g)
Valine (0.480 g)
All these are in addition to finger millet’s noteworthy content of proteins, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, tannins, and phytates. Thanks to this diverse array of nutrients, finger millet has an equally wide range of health benefits. These include but aren’t limited to “anti-diabetic, [antitumorigenic], anti-diarrheal, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties,” wrote the researchers. (Related: 10 Benefits to Eating Millet.)

They continued: “[Moreover], finger millet is also useful in management of various physiological disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular fragility, hypercholesterolemia, prevention of oxidation of [low-density] lipoproteins (LDLs) and also improves gastrointestinal health.”

Finger millet is particularly good for diabetics and pre-diabetics. This is primarily because it has a considerable phenolic compound and dietary fiber content. Phenolic compounds have been under scrutiny for a while now due to their anti-diabetic potential. Dietary fiber doesn’t raise blood glucose levels, which makes this nutrient safe for people who currently struggle with or are on the cusp of diabetes. In fact, the researchers cited one study which concluded that eating finger millet on a regular basis can reduce fasting glucose by 32 percent and insulin resistance by 43 percent.

Additionally, finger millet has ragi bifunctional inhibitors (RBI). This monomeric protein has been the subject of great interest for one major reason: it can inhibit the activity of K562 chronic myeloid leukemia. This specific form of leukemia is “characterized by [an] increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow leading to their accumulation in the blood.” Conventional treatments have proven ineffective against this disease, but not so with finger millet.

Based on their findings and reviews of previous studies, the researchers deemed finger millet to be an “important ingredient of dietary and nutritional balanced foods.” The dietary fiber, polyphenols, and numerous other nutrients can provide health benefits that aren’t just limited to its anti-diabetic and anti-carcinogenic actions.

Those who’d like to give finger millet a try may opt for whole meal-based finger millet products. These still contain the testa, which contains most of the important nutrients.
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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:21
26-06-2018, 18:21

Scientists take super close-up shots of the human bone to understand why they are so strong

Категория: Science

Scientists take super close-up shots of the human bone to understand why they are so strong

To truly understand the sturdiness of human bones, U.K. researchers have peered deeper into their structure than ever before. In a Scientific American article, they reported finding helix-shaped nanostructures twisting into and around equally thin spirals of fibrils.

The nanostructures are made up of mineral crystallites, while fibrils are a type of protein collagen. These interlinked shapes make up the bone at the most fundamental level. They could possibly account for the material’s incredible durability.

In the 1960s, researchers used the earliest electron microscopes to take their first close-up look at a bone. They determined that it was mostly made up of bone minerals and collagen.

Since then, bone experts have been split into two camps over the organization of these two constituents. One group stated that fibrils surrounded the minerals, while the other camp maintained that it was the other way around. (Related: Curcumin improves bone-growing capabilities of 3D-printed ceramic scaffolds.)

Researchers discover helix-shaped nanostructures of bone mineral crystals
A University of York (York) team led by materials researcher Roland Kröger set out to resolve this debate once and for all. They used the latest electron microscopes and an ion beam cutter to obtain bone samples.

Previous studies used bladed saws to cut the bone. However, this conventional technique has been shown to fracture nanostructures. Instead, Kröger used a focused ion beam to carefully slice very small and thin sections of bone.

The York researchers snapped images of these tiny slices of bone using electron microscopes. Two of the three shots show patterns that experts have already seen before.

An arrangement of long, thin filaments is theorized to be a lengthwise image of the bone. Meanwhile, a web-like pattern is widely considered to be a cross-section of fibrils.

A brand new pattern came up in the third image. The structure comprised dense groups of hexagons that are studded by smaller dots. Dark lines twirl through the center of the unique formation.

Kröger dubbed the spiral nanostructures as “rosettes.” He initially believed the shapes were a cross-section of the collagen fibrils that was taken at a new angle.

His team took more electron microscope photos of a very thin slice of bone from different angles. After each shot, they would rotate the slice by one degree. They they compiled all their pictures into a 3D model of the sample.

The tomogram model showed needle-like crystals of bone mineral curving in and out of the collagen fibers. The minerals formed a spiral scaffold around the collagen.

New helical mineral nanostructure is disputed by some bone experts
While some bone researchers welcomed the York team’s discovery, others have rejected the new model. Dissidents cited the earlier findings via small-angle X-ray scattering, which is a different imaging technique than the electron microscope method used by Kröger.

Studies that used small-angle X-ray scattering showed that bone nanocrystals are shaped like plates instead of needles.

Furthermore, the helical organization of the crystallite needles evaded explanation. One theory is that collagen fibrils became dehydrated while the sample was being readied.

Dehydration would have caused the fibrils to contract. This in turn might have forced the crystals to take up a curved shape. The minerals might have been straight to begin with.

Still, a helical nanostructure could explain the strength of bones. A coiled spring, which features similar curves to a helix, can support much greater weight than linear equivalents.

The sponge-like pattern of bone collagen threads reportedly inspired the crisscrossing structure of the Eiffel Tower. This new helical model of bone nanostructure could likewise inspire new construction techniques and building materials.
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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:19
26-06-2018, 18:19

Researchers have discovered how the Black Death bacteria disappear only to return with a vengeance – it takes refuge inside amoebae where it survives and replicates

Категория: Science

Researchers have discovered how the Black Death bacteria disappear only to return with a vengeance – it takes refuge inside amoebae where it survives and replicates

The deadly plague bacteria Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), a pathogen infamously associated with the spread of the Black Death epidemic in the 14th century, was either resistant or transiently resistant to certain species of amoeba, according to a study published in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. The study also showed that the pathogen may even use the amoeba species as a host and reservoir for its future reemergence.

A team of researchers at the Colorado State University collected soil samples from 24 prairie dog burrows from eight colonies in the Pawnee National Grassland of northeastern Colorado to assess the co-occurrence of amoeba and Y. pestis. The scientists then isolated five amoeba species — including A. castellanii, A. lenticulata, A. polyphaga, D.discoideum, and V. vermiformis — by using modified culture methods, while Y. pestis strains were cultured from frozen stocks in lysogeny broth (LB) medium.

The experts also carried out intraameba bacterial survival and replication assays in order to determine the survival of Y. pestis strains in the amoeba species following phagocytic activities. The researchers found that while Y. pestis was known to reside in the digestive and central vacuoles of certain amoeba species, it did not survive beyond 24 hours post-infection in four amoeba strains including A. castellanii, A. lenticulata, A. polyphaga and V. vermiformis. However, the scientists observed that Y. pestis was able to survive the D.discoideum strain for more than 48 hours postinfection under variable treatment conditions.

“The bacteria were not just hanging out, but they were surviving and actually quite happy inside the amoebae, and replicating. By contrast, most bacteria get digested by amoebae and are decimated in under an hour. If [our lab] can show that the bacteria can stay in the cysts for years, it could explain outbreaks followed by two years of dormancy and re-emergence seemingly out of nowhere,” lead researcher David Markman told Science Daily online.

The scientists also found that the plague bacteria had significantly higher survival and recoverability rate when co-cultured with amoeba compared with monocultured controls. The research team noted that the results may shed light on how plague outbreaks may spread, stay dormant, and eventually reemerge. The scientists also expressed hope that the findings would eventually help prevent human cases of plague by effectively determining how the deadly pathogen persists.

“The successful intracellular survival of Y. pestis in D. discoideum for >48 h demonstrates that Y. pestis is an ameba-resistant bacterium. This classification supports the potential for D. discoideum or related ameba species to be environmental reservoirs of plague…Further research is necessary to determine if the maximum duration of intraameba Y. pestis survival corresponds with the durations of cryptic interepizootic persistence that are characteristic of plague dynamics. Further research into ameba-mediated pathogenesis and persistence will offer practical insights for public health, conservation, agricultural management, and biodefense,” the researchers concluded.

Experts sound the alarm on Black Death reemergence in Africa
The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently released fatality data on the Black Death plague that had sweept across Madagascar. The latest statistics showed that the total number of cases reported between December 17, 2017, and January 7, 2018 significantly increased from 2,580 cases to 2,603 cases. The WHO data also revealed that up to 77 percent of plague cases reported were a deadly pneumonic strain that can kill in 24 hours.

The WHO added that the disease outbreak killed 225 people so far in the island nation alone. A report published in the Daily Star website also noted that the outbreak spurred global panic last year, which placed 10 African countries on high alert. The epidemic was labeled as the worst outbreak in 50 years, according to the online report.
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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:16
26-06-2018, 18:16

U.S. government statistics reveal that the flu vaccine is the most dangerous vaccine in America

Категория: Science

U.S. government statistics reveal that the flu vaccine is the most dangerous vaccine in America

Even the bestselling flu vaccine is only the fifth most popular vaccine in the United States. Prevnar, the vaccine used to prevent infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria; Gardasil, which supposedly prevents cervical cancer; PENTAct-HIB, given to tiny infants to stave off diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b; and Infanrix/Pediarix, a vaccine indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus, and poliomyelitis; are all far more popular than the flu vaccine.

Nonetheless, a report released in 2013 by the Department of Justice, shows that more than half of all claims settled by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, also known as the Vaccine Court, were for injuries caused by the influenza vaccine.

As reported by Health Impact News, during the period covering 16 August to 15 November 2013, 139 claims were settled by the Vaccine Court, 70 of which received compensation. Of these settled claims, 42 – or 60 percent – were for injuries caused by the flu vaccine. The remaining 40 percent were for injuries caused by 11 other vaccines.

The greatest number of injuries by far that were reported as a result of the flu vaccine were for Guillain-Barré Syndrome, or GBS, a condition which the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke describes as follows:

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The first symptoms of this disorder include varying degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. In many instances the symmetrical weakness and abnormal sensations spread to the arms and upper body. These symptoms can increase in intensity until certain muscles cannot be used at all and, when severe, the person is almost totally paralyzed. In these cases the disorder is life threatening – potentially interfering with breathing and, at times, with blood pressure or heart rate – and is considered a medical emergency. Such an individual is often put on a ventilator to assist with breathing and is watched closely for problems such as an abnormal heart beat, infections, blood clots, and high or low blood pressure. Most individuals, however, have good recovery from even the most severe cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, although some continue to have a certain degree of weakness.

The flu vaccine: a toxic recipe for disaster
The injuries caused by the flu vaccine, as listed in the Department of Justice report, are not limited to Guillain-Barré Syndrome, however. They also include: neurological injury, peripheral neuropathy, painful myalgias, psychological sequella, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, corneal transplant failure, transverse myelitis, encephalitis, shoulder injury, bilateral optic neuritis resulting in permanent legal blindness, leukoencephalopathy, chemically-induced multiple sclerosis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, fibromyalgia, and death, among others.

To the uninformed it might seem shocking that a medical procedure considered safe by the mainstream medical community could cause such serious health problems. When one considers the flu vaccine’s ingredients and adjuvants, however, it becomes totally understandable.

For one thing, the flu vaccine contains 25,000 times more mercury than is legally allowed in water. For another, statistics confirm that vaccinated people are actually more susceptible to the flu and often get more ill than those who focus on building up their own body’s immune system.

Reports like these raise many issues. For example, considering the severity of the reactions and conditions linked to the flu vaccine in just a three-month period, and remembering that very few adverse vaccine reactions are ever reported, why is the mainstream media not shouting this information from the rooftops? Why is there virtually total media silence when it comes to the dangers of vaccines in general? Why are we not given this information when we choose to vaccinate ourselves and our children with these potentially deadly vaccines?
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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:10
26-06-2018, 18:10

Sierra Club says you’re RACIST if you don’t agree with “climate change” mythology

Категория: Science

Sierra Club says you’re RACIST if you don’t agree with “climate change” mythology

Climate change alarmists can’t really fight against science, so they’ve stooped to some old-fashioned name-calling instead. Now, if you don’t believe the climate change mythology, it must mean you’re racist, according to the Sierra Club.

Yes, you read that correctly. The long-standing environmental group has been latching onto a study that claims there is a strong correlation between “reduced agreement with the scientific consensus on climate change” and “high levels of racial resentment.”

The study, which was carried out by DePauw University’s Salil D. Benegal, used public opinion data from surveys like the American National Election Studies (ANES) and Pew to imply that racial prejudices and identification were correlated with climate change opinions during Obama’s presidency.

Specifically, Benegal said that Republicans who had high “racial resentment scores” were 84 percent likely to dispute the notion of manmade climate change. Moreover, Republicans with higher scores for racial resentment were found to be three times as likely to disagree with the sentiment that climate change was real than those white Republicans who scored lower on the racism scale.

Just how is “racial resentment” assessed? ANES has been interviewing national samples of voters both before and after every presidential election in the country since the 1960s. To determine racial resentment against African Americans, it asks people how much they agree or disagree, on a scale from one to five, with a series of statements like, “If Blacks would only try harder, they could be just as well off as whites,” or “Irish, Italians, Jewish and many other minorities overcame prejudice and worked their way up. Blacks should do the same without any special favors.”

Backlash against climate change related to anti-Obama sentiment?
The Sierra Club sent out a provocative tweet saying, “The percentage of white Americans who said that they believed climate change is a very serious problem declined during the Obama administration. Why?”

Somehow, Benegal has decided that Obama’s skin color drove people’s skepticism of climate change. Of course, the rising doubt would have nothing to do with the growing body of evidence against the idea that global warming is caused by human activity, right? That’s far less sensational and requires them to admit that the science isn’t really backing their idea. When all else fails, the left can always just accuse people of being racist!

After all, it’s an approach that worked for Al Gore, as the Daily Caller points out. He has compared the global warming crusade to the civil rights and abolitionist movements, drawing sharp criticism from many groups.

Conservative Black Leadership’s Horace Cooper said at the time: “When Al Gore, Jr. associates these moral movements of history with one grounded in questionable data, he gives climate change activists unearned moral credibility they haven’t earned and don’t deserve.”

The facts are the real reason people doubt climate change
In recent years, research has shown that climate change predictions were completely exaggerated, overestimating the impact to the tune of as much as 45 percent. It has also come to light that “climate scientists” have been faking their data, altering recorded surface temperatures to make it look like warming occurred when it didn’t. They’ve also been “adjusting” tidal gauge data to support the climate change narrative. If people have been moving away from the idea that human activity is causing global warming, it has nothing to do with race and everything to do with the growing body of evidence that it’s little more than a hoax.
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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:08
26-06-2018, 18:08

The “global warming” hoax: 30 years of failed predictions that never happened

Категория: Science

The “global warming” hoax: 30 years of failed predictions that never happened

Once upon a time in the late 1980s, the Left devised a behavioral modification scheme aimed at one thing: Future control of as much of the population as possible.

The problem was convincing enough Americans to willingly go along with the plan — a scheme most would never voluntarily agree to because it would involve radical deindustrialization and modification of their lifestyles.

They settled on human-caused “global warming” — the determination that modern existence was causing the planet to heat up so much all life would soon be exterminated…if we didn’t stop being so modern.

The crackpot theory was first introduced by NASA ‘scientist’ Dr. James Hansen in testimony before the U.S. Senate in 1988: “Global warming has begun.”

As reported June 24 of that year by The New York Times:

The earth has been warmer in the first five months of this year than in any comparable period since measurements began 130 years ago, and the higher temperatures can now be attributed to a long-expected global warming trend linked to pollution, a space agency scientist reported today.

At the time, Hansen — said to be a “leading expert on climate change” — told a Senate committee that he was “99 percent certain” that the warming trend of the day wasn’t due to natural Earth variations but instead was being “caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide and other artificial gases in the atmosphere,” the Times reported.

The Times intoned with this dire warning: “If Dr. Hansen and other scientists are correct, then humans, by burning of fossil fuels and other activities, have altered the global climate in a manner that will affect life on earth for centuries to come.”

Since then, of course, there has been no shortage of wild predictions of mass gloom, doom, and death, thanks to selfish humans (Americans mostly) who care more about their SUV than heating up the planet to the point of extinction.

And while the Left continues to tout this theory as legitimate, none of their predictions have come true. In fact, Hansen’s own charts and computer models from 1988 and earlier have been shown to be ridiculously flawed. (Related: Global warming / Climate change is dead, so when can conservatives say: “We told you so?”)

30 years of lies… and counting
Here are some of the most bizarre, insane, and just plain wrong predictions of disaster:

— One of our day’s biggest climate hoaxers, former Vice President Al Gore, predicted in 2006 as he was hyping in his BS (but nevertheless Oscar-winning) documentary, “An Inconvenient Truth,” that unless we took “drastic measures” to reduce “greenhouse gases,” then the world would reach a “point of no return” within a decade.

That prediction is now 12 years old. Mind you, Gore has never been a climate scientist or even a scientist at all; he’s just a political huckster like any other Democrat who claims to have intimate knowledge about the Earth.

— In March 2000, a writer for the UK’s Independent wrote that “snowfalls are now just a thing of the past,” as Britain was undergoing “striking environmental change” (thanks to selfish humans). But then a strange thing happened; England kept seeing snowfall. In fact, in March of this year rural UK received so much snow, one longtime resident of rural England remarked: “I’ve never seen anything like this.”

— In 2007, Australia’s The Age pondered, “Can climate change get worse? It has,” onto its way to predict “more catastrophic damages from climate change than in the worst-case scenario forecast by international experts.” That, ostensibly, included losing most of the Australian continent to flooding as melting ice dramatically increased the sea level.

There are many more, and Tony Heller of RealClimateScience.com put together a video of 30 years’ worth of bogus global warming/climate change predictions that never came true (and never will).

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  • Дата: 26-06-2018, 18:05
26-06-2018, 18:05

Scientists create superionic ice – an ice 60x denser than ordinary water ice and forms at temperatures almost as hot as the sun

Категория: Science

Scientists create superionic ice – an ice 60x denser than ordinary water ice and forms at temperatures almost as hot as the sun

Imagine ice that is simultaneously a solid and a liquid, has 60 times the density of normal ice, and capable of forming on the burning surface of the sun. It is called “superionic ice,” an article in Space.com states, and California-based researchers have just created it.

This previously theoretical form of ice was first conceived 30 years ago. It is believed to exist deep within the highly pressurized atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune.

The extreme heat and pressure conditions within those two gas giants are able to bring out a strange phase in water, where the compound to act like a solid and a liquid at the same time. During the superionic phase, hydrogen ions can flow like a liquid within a solid lattice of oxygen crystals.

A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team led by Marius Millot was responsible for creating superionic ice for the first time. Millot served as the lead author of the study paper, which was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Physics. (Related: Uranus smells, says scientist, who finds that the planet’s upper atmosphere is composed of hydrogen sulfide.)

Researchers create water ice that is both a solid and a liquid
He and his researchers started out by compressing water into cubic crystalline ice. Diamond anvil cells applied 25,000 times the normal atmospheric pressure on Earth on water.

The next step was applying sharp shocks to the pressurized water using as many as six laser beams for each crystal structure. This shock compression added heat to the system while also increasing the already immense air pressure on the cells.

Compressing the water beforehand reduced the need for shock-heating. In turn, the decreased amounts of shock-compression allowed the LLNL researchers to make much colder ice.

The superionic ice only lasted for mere nanoseconds before pressure waves from the surroundings broke its compression and caused it to melt. Millot and his colleagues managed to analyze its optical and thermodynamic properties.

They reported that superionic ice will melt at temperatures of 8,540 degrees Fahrenheit (4,725 degrees Celsius) and two million times the atmospheric pressure found on Earth. These conditions can be found on the surface of the Sun.

Study suggests Uranus and Neptune have mantles of superionic ice
The findings of the LLNL study offered a potential insight into planets like Uranus and Neptune. Planetary researchers have theorized that water makes up 65 percent of the mass of these gas giants. Earlier studies proposed that these planets have fully fluid interiors.

However, the creation of superionic ice brought up a new possibility. Millot’s paper suggested those planets have thick mantles made up of superionic ice with a much thinner layer of fluid.

The new model would validate the results of a computer simulation performed during the 2000s. The simulation attempted to figure out the significant tilts of Uranus and Neptune’s magnetic fields.

The magnetic field of Earth is tilted 11 degrees from its axis. But Uranus’ magnetic poles have a 59-degree tilt while those of Neptune show a 47-degree tilt.

The tilts may mean the magnetic fields of the two gas giants behave differently from that of our planet. One theory suggests Uranus’ field might turn off and on like a strobe light.

The only way to confirm these theories is a new planetary mission. NASA has already raised the possibility of sending a space probe to investigate either Uranus and Neptune within the next few decades.

Millot and his colleagues at LLNL are planning to increase the compression in future experiments. By matching the atmospheric pressure in Jupiter and Saturn, they can find out if the interiors of those gas giants can support superionic ice.
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